OpenWrt doesn't provide a combined disk image for ARM virtual machines, unlike what they did for x86 VMs. Meanwhile, their official ARM64 kernel release can't boot in UEFI environment. But we can still make it work by compiling it from source and building a disk image manually.

When we resize the virtual hard disk of a virtual machine or restore a disk image to a larger disk, the free space of the partition detected by Ubuntu will not increase because the partition table is unchanged. In the past, we could easily resize the ext4 root partition with the help of resize2fs. However, things get complex when Ubuntu utilizes LVM partition as their default root partition.

在除夕前那么几天终于有一点闲空了,早在半年前,我就对原来的博客很不爽了,原来的主题丑到我了,博客系统也废了很久(不过怎么还有人能成功评论了,我自己都不能登录上去)。突然又发现 NexT 主题悄悄换了个仓库,早就更新了一个大版本了,连渲染后端都换成了 Nunjucks 了。总之,是时候爆改我博客的 Remix 主题了。

Last year, I wrote a post about how to install Ubuntu 18.04 Server automatically. The major reason why I choose to install the older version is I failed to make Ubuntu 20.04 install without pressing any key at that time while the approach for the offline installation recommended by the official is not working.


MPI allows to create a new communicator by splitting an existing one into a sub-communicator, which can make our program dynamically select a subset of computing nodes to involve in the collective communication operations, such as all-reduce and all-gather operations. NCCL also has a similar feature, but it is not well-documented yet.



Recently, a SOTA sharding approach, GSPMD/GShard, was proposed and it provides an intuitive interface to partition a large array on arbitrary dimensions, while utilizing sharding propagation algorithms to automatically infer the partitioning strategy for tensors without user-specified sharding specifications. This document introduces the design and the implementation of XLA Sharding System.

It would be easier to read the source code if we are aware of the runtime information, including call stacks and variable values. This tutorial introduces how to utilize our powerful VSCode to trace XLA Compiler.